Introduction

Genetically modified crops (GMF) refers to plants which have been modified within laboratories for the purposes of enhancing plant characteristics. This process had earlier been done through breeding which proved to be more time consuming and at times produced inaccurate results.

This was enhanced through the use of genetic engineering which enabled the creation of plants with desired characteristics, done by inserting appropriate genes to the desired plants. However, arguments have risen on the viability of these kinds of food to human and environmental health. Various organizations have raised their concerns about GM foods since the idea is considered profit oriented rather than being health oriented (Domingo, 2000).

There are some common concerns emerging amongst different professionals about genetically modified crops and food. These concerns revolve around health risks, environmental pollution and the adverse effects on the general biodiversity. These concerned people put across their arguments without any valid evidences which could support their negative stand on the danger posed by genetically engineered food.

So far conclusion has been made concerning the long-term consequences GM food could have on human health not forgetting the general safety of the current and future environment. Based on such argument, some may tend to take side with the proponents of GM crops and food in declaring the food safe for consumption (Domingo, 2000).

Despite the dilemma faced on the issue, there are still numerous legal grounds that people could stand upon in the process of opposing the use of GM food. This could be based on the manner in which the industry has structured its laws on the use of intellectual property rights where by the issue of patenting genetically modified organisms would be geared towards transformation of farming methods. The focus is majorly on maximizing profits hence ignoring many lives it is meant to support.

Contrary to the objections presented by the public concerning the introduction and use of GM food, some of the big world organizations seem to be reading from different scripts. One of the organization’s is World Trade Organization (WTO), which is a body majorly concerned with implementation and regulation of rules amongst the nations of the world.

This body is one of the proponents on the use of GM food; WTO has gone as far as protecting the sale of GM food within the market through granting those involved legal trade licenses and also protecting them against any market discriminatory actions. Such kind of a move undermines the people’s democratic rights on choice and interests. This is since the market forces can never form any legal substitute to human life and safety. Such kind of move provides a reach battle ground between humanitarian and market forces.

These rights include; food and safety rights, right to freedom of choice, property rights and the rights conferred on organizations dealing with food security. This provides one of the most powerful grounds used in opposing the existence of GM food within the global market.

International laws require that any kind of food should undergo thorough testing and investigations before being released to the general public. However, there are some kinds of food that are always regarded as safe internationally hence does not undergo thorough check. Genetically Modified food falls under this category of safe food according to international laws under FDA.

The tests relied upon for approvals are performed by the same companies who happen to be prime producers of genetically modified organisms. This leads to some kind of bias since they would want to gain at the expense of human life, they will tend to exaggerate the level of danger contained within their inventions. To be on safe side the public should be warned and advised to take caution while using any kind of food within the market.

This is since most of these genetically modified food stuff appear in the market with no labels which could provide consumers with knowledge about their use. Such actions reinforce the nature of risk the companies are exposing people to; this could be traced to some dangerous scenarios the public has been exposed to in the past like the issue on mud cow disease.

Humanitarian and food security organizations should therefore ensure that necessary safety rules and procedures are instituted to assist in curtailing GM food and crops (Pusztai, 2000).

Explanation of the issue on objection on the use of Genetically Modified food

Controversies have been raised over the rise in genetically modified crops and food; this is in line with the kind of complexities they pose to human issues. Most governments though, have considered genetic modification as an important aspect of technology beneficial to scientific, political and economic progress.

They consider such implication as one of the great advances towards development of future human welfare. This has since not been proven true from the human point of view, because the idea of using biotechnology poses some moral and ethical challenges to human life.

The ability of the inserted genetic matter being transferred through into different species presents one of the greatest risks to survival. Scientists have got little knowledge to establish the processes which might be caused by GMF at genetic level and the ultimate consequences on the proteomic level of the life involved. They have not been able to ascertain on the causal impacts across food chains (Domingo, 2000).

The inception of GM crops and food has got some adverse effects on economy and nature. It seems to undermine the nature’s ability to sustain life through environmentally friendly ways of producing food for human sustenance. There is strong belief and proof that the planet has got the capability of producing enough food for the purposes of supporting life therein, the insufficiency comes due to unfair application of human will power.

Enough could be produced through the use intensive farming methods and the application of right procedures and prescriptions on crops. Increased yields and food production could be ensured by use of various diversification methods. One of the major environmental risks posed by GM crops is the negative impact they have on the biodiversity within the farmlands (Buick, 2011).

Genetically modified food is no different from other known conventional foods hence should be subjected to thorough test for health risks. Genetically modified food should be examined for their alleged level of toxicity, antibiotic resistance and also the level of carcinogens they contain. These contents make them health hazards hence should be avoided whenever possible. They also pose a great threat towards what is known as genetic pollution whereby the crops trigger irreversible genetic contamination to plant and animal life.

The crops produce chain of reactions which eventually pose unintended consequences like pests resistant to chemicals as well as hard core weeds. It may also lead to emergence of resistant viruses in the process of gene transfer from viral resistant plants to other plants. This presents great threat to biodiversity since the crops are planted into foreign ecosystems where they eventually dominate (Taylor et al, 1999).

The whole issue on GM food seems to concentrate so much on scientists ignoring the important contributions by the public. The whole issue on policy making surrounding GM food is only narrowed down to experts ignoring the full involvement of the public in decision making process.

This could lead to under-presentation since the effects of the food is generally felt by the public hence the decisions made could be considered illegitimate. There is also the unjustified process on risk assessment processes which involves balancing of risks, costs involved and the benefits on the use of GM food. There are no clear indications that implementation of GM food has got parallel studies on methods of overcoming any hazardous consequences they might pose to life (Lappe et al, 1999).

Arguments for the particular decision based on legal, economic, social, political and ethical considerations

Many opinions have been put across on the potential health risks associated with GM food crops; this has been substantiated by scarce data. The level of quality, science gives on the established data concerning GM food is sub-standard. This justifies the reason as to why there is objection on the fact that the future of this generation is dependent upon the success brought by the promise based on quality GM foods.

On the issue of environmental concerns, research has shown that GM crops could cause harm un-discriminatively to other niches within the environment. This was presented from the example of Bt. Corn which resulted in high mortality rates of insects including the un-targeted ones. The process also leads to gene transfer to non-targeted plant species, which appears adjacent to GM crops. This happens through cross pollination where pollen grains are transferred from male plants to undesired targets (Buick, 2011).

Economically, existence of GM food into the market proves to be an expensive process owing to the kinds of costs involved. Companies involved in genetic production of food crops have patented their engineering technologies. The idea of patenting GM plants may result in price increase of the seeds which would be of great disadvantage to small farmers and majority of the third world countries.

The result is the widening gap between the rich and the poor (Panse, 2010). The healthcare system which is concerned with the duties of providing the people with treatment, prevention measures and overall management of health finds difficulties dealing with risks posed by GMOs since there are no documented procedures form biotechnology industries.

However, the necessary interventions could be ensured in collaboration with professional service providers like nurses and physicians. These services require adequate financing and should be performed based on already set policies and standards which govern the healthcare system. The industry faces some risks and challenges which include costs and the complex processes which should be followed to ensure quality results.

The issue on GM food could be best addressed in terms of hazards rather than risks, of great importance is on how the effects occur within free trading systems. This may help in exposing the anticipated connections between the free markets and the public opinions concerning safety in terms of human and environmental health.

This should be considered since GM food forms part of the complex social, political which makes the issue crucial part of international laws and markets. This makes the issue an important part of social justice which incorporates food production and consumption based on national, international laws and human rights. Failure to incorporate and consider these laws in the process of implementing GM food leads to violation of international laws on food security and human rights (Pusztai, 2000).

The firm needs the approval of FDA in order to start carrying out the normal sales of GM food to the industry. Biotechnology firm should carry out some trials through the marketers on sample population to establish the level of relevance their invention brings to the market. This should be part of the design so as to enable the firm prove to the consumers that their product is superior compared to others and has got no side effects.

There should be an established research organization which operates under the modern international laws on development providing strong base for future expansion. It would only work with experienced management team providing the required and necessary knowledge. The processes of regulations and clinical research should be incorporated to form part of research and development assisting in improvement of the results submitted to FDA.

The strategy of introducing GMOs is simply for the purposes of fulfilling prevention priority initiatives. It is intended at helping the population all over the world by improving on their lifestyle and upgrading their health status through adoption of quick-fix GM crops which in essence matures faster than the natural crops and also best at controlling emerging diseases.

The aim is in the reduction of food deficit level experienced all over the world as well as preventing the use of chemicals. The strategy also aims at preventing prevalent mortality rate amongst the population due to rise in hunger (Pusztai, 2000).

Building strategies is necessary for efficient implementation of any consumer product. The kind of strategy built and implemented determines the level of progress within any system. Strategies are usually built based on various conditions which should include; the current economic status, Country’s policies and ability to focus ahead based on competitive moves and health concerns.

The implementation process should have action plan which can enable them have competitive advantage over other related food sources within the industry. The effects and implications of the chosen strategies in the implementation of GM food by the governments are basically based on business principles.

The use of GM food may have increased effects on human productivity due to the genetic composition of the food crops transferable across food chain. The use of this strategy was basically aimed at ensuring that all community members have access to cheap food at affordable costs. This would have been done by offering some quality options like the implementation monitoring gadget that would enhance safety for all users of the GMOs.

This would also ensure that important information about health concerns on the use of GM food is relayed appropriately to all community members. Performing this strategy would ensure reduction in negative consequences on the use of GM food. This means that the government would be in full control of the people’s health. Besides preventing and reducing death rate, the initiative would also ensure reduction in general public suspicions on the use of the food (Pusztai, 2000).

The information provided on the use of GMOs would improve the nature of disaster preparedness towards community reactions on the use of GM food. The idea of objecting implementation of GM food aims at equipping the community and preparing them against any disaster posed by the use of strange food products found within the market.

This strategy could help in enhancing excellent coordination between the food industry and the health care sector, making it easier when it comes to organizing appropriate responses in protecting public health. This would at the same time cover the need in improving the communication system used between the community and various organizations dealing with food safety. The procedure ensures that all the cases pertaining to reports on public health responses are maintained (Panse, 2010).

Any plan instituted by biotechnology industry should ensure that organizational excellence is given priority since the strategy touches on human and environmental sustenance. For progress to be realized within the biotech industry, some dimensions and components within organizations working in collaboration with the industry require strengthening. This ensures that the industry’s effectiveness and efficiency on safety issues is felt across all the communities.

This could be enhanced through recruitment of qualified and experienced scientists willing to be accountable for every process involved in the innovation of genetically modified food. This strategy may help in reducing the unnecessary phobia on the general public concerning GMOs. It would ensure that majority of consumers respond positively towards the idea on GM food (Pusztai, 2000).

All these priorities could be supported on condition that Biotech industry agrees to work in partnership with the humanitarian organizations, food security organizations and the community at large in ensuring that health and safety are given first priority. The industry should ensure that it forms and sponsors specific community groups specifically concerned with Health care matters to help in ascertaining the viability of their inventions.

This would also help in closing the disparity that exists within healthcare on the grounds of discrimination and economic ability on the majority of the people. The promotion should encompass individuals, learning institutions and social centers all over the world (Pusztai, 2000).

Stakeholder analysis

The many controversies surrounding genetically modified food is that it may cause small local farmers to loose their business to few bigger companies. This means that much of the food will have to be imported from overseas countries. Due to the limited research done on this field only few crops could be produced through this process giving full benefits to the bigger corporations hence being viewed as government initiative for the purposes of controlling world food supply (Yingqi, 2011).

People have got the right to be protected from hunger by their respective countries and concerned world organization bodies. This makes every individual to have right to food which is essential to good health. There should not be any form of interference on the issue of citizen’s rights to enjoyment by any form of implementation whatsoever.

Every state is under obligation to protect through provision of adequate basic needs which includes food and water. Food provided should be of convincing quality and quantity and in line with the people’s cultural norms. Genetically modified food tends to infringe the right of others towards enjoyment both environmentally and socially. Their acquisitions are thought by many to be of great set back towards sustainability (Yingqi, 2011).

The governments through humanitarian organizations have the obligation of promoting individual’s rights to health and nutrition which in turn leads to enjoyment of basic political and economic rights.

However, World trade organization encourages people to buy GM seeds and at the same time improve on the ways in which they do farming for the purposes of accommodating large quantities. The issue of farming has currently been dwindling within societies leading to mass drive towards poverty. This is because of the nature of competition which exists within the market.

This clearly shows that even the introduction of GM food would do little to solve the problem of hunger within communities. Hence, reveals that the issue is not all about having less food but poor governance and crying levels of poverty. This means that introduction of biotechnology would encourage further dependence on few individual companies for the purposes of providing seeds and necessary equipments for farming (Kuiper et al, 1999).

There is the problem of high expenditure on overheads and less involvement of the public in decision making. The introduction of GM food leads to abrupt change in taste on side of the consumers since the food products give some unnatural taste to people.

The use of in-experienced scientists in genetics poses adverse effect on the introduction of GM food since they are unable to convince the public on the safety of their innovations. Owing to these reasons, the only solution would be to provide possible alternatives out of this mire by incorporating both public and specialist opinion. This could lead to fulfillment of the desired consumer taste (Millstone, 1999).

Conclusion

Genetically modified foods could be used as one of the best interventions towards eradicating world food problems. Its other benefit could be realized on the reduction in the use of familiar chemicals like pesticides and other mechanical weed control mechanisms. Despite all these, several challenges face many governments; this is specifically in the crucial areas dealing with safety, regulation processes, international policies and food labeling.

Majority share the feeling that genetic engineering could be one of the major future challenges on human life despite its potential of producing great benefits. The potential threats it poses to human and environmental health requires further investigations to establish on the truth behind the allegations. However, all the allegations provide valid concerns on the use of genetically modified food and crops.

Specialists understand better the idea of strategy development within the Health care and food security sectors. This is since both contribute to individual’s as well as community’s health. Implementation of right strategies assists in increasing the health and environmental awareness amongst the communities and helps them know on ways of differentiating between risks and hazards.

However, poor strategies often results into poor services which at times results into harmful consequences to both the Community and the health of individuals. Health of the public should be handled with the necessary caution and every available resource used in ensuring that humanity is safe from any form of humanitarian destruction. International rules and regulations safeguarding human existence should be followed to details by every country and any global organization.

References

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Domingo, J.L. (2000). Health risks of Genetically Modified Foods: Many opinions but Few Data. Science, (288), 1748-1749.

Kuiper, H.A., Noteborn, H.P., & Peijnenburg, A., (1999). Adequacy of Methods for Testing the Safety of Genetically Modified Foods. The Lancet, (354), 1315-1316.

Lappe, M.A., Bailey, E.B., Childress, C., & Setchell, K.D.R. (1999). Alterations in Clinically Important Phytoestrogens in Genetically Modified, Herbicide-Tolerant Soybeans. Journal of Medical Food, (1), 241-245.

Millstone, E., Brunner, E. & Mayer, S., (1999). Beyond Substantial Equivalence. Nature, (401), 525-526.

Panse, S. (2010). The Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetically Modified Food. Retrieved 19th March from http://www.brighthub.com/

Pusztai, A. (2000). The Need for Rigorous Risk Assessment. Chemistry & Industry, (8), 280.

Taylor, N.B., Fuchs, R.L., MacDonald, J., Shariff, A.B. & Padgette, S.R. (1999).

Compositional Analysis of Glyphosate-Tolerant Soybeans treated with Glyphosate. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, (47), 4469-4473.

Yingqi, C. (2011). Public has doubts over Modified Food. China Daily, (23/2), 5.