In healthcare, there is a lot of diversity when it comes to the provision of the service among populations of different ethnic culture and background. As a result, several models have been developed to enhance healthcare service delivery to the increasing multiethnic populations (Gornick et al, 1996). Some have worked while others have failed. This paper will critically analyze the urban population and the rural population in Africa and how each population responds to various healthcare issues.

Urban populations in African are found in metropolitan centers where a higher rate of development is found. Most of the people in these areas are literate as a result of the improved educational facilities. They mainly get healthcare information through seminars and workshops which are organized by healthcare organizations, the media and from the word of mouth.

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They normally have small sized families due to the high cost of living in the urban settings. In most cases both parents work hard to ensure that they provide the basic need to their children and they also live a comfortable life (Pedersen, 1988).

Rural populations on the other hand are found in areas which are not highly developed away from metropolitan centers. Unlike the urban areas, most people living in rural areas are illiterate as a result of poor provision of educational facilities in the region. They are mainly subsistent families who are involved in activities which only sustain them.

They mainly get healthcare information from seminars and workshops organized by healthcare organizations. Information from the media is not common due to the poor development of communication facilities in the rural settings (Lavizzo, 1996).

In urban populations, high risk behavior which may affect health of individuals include irresponsible sexual behavior, alcoholism and drug abuse, exposure to harmful radiation, pollution and so on. With regard to the high prices of fresh foods in urban areas and the distance from rural areas most urban people normally consume food which in not nutritious, composed of different substances such as chemicals. As a result they are not as healthy as those from rural areas (Lavizzo, 1996).

The use of contraceptives to protect against unwanted pregnancies is high. Pre-natal and post-natal care services are also highly developed reducing the rate of infant mortality in urban areas. Their death rituals and spirituality is based on a formal region such as Christianity or Islam. Most individuals in urban areas prefer to get healthcare from professionals thus go to the hospitals in times of health distress (Leininger, 1978).

In rural areas high risk behavior affecting the health of individuals are outbreaks of contagious diseases and irresponsible sexual behavior. Pollution, exposure to harmful gasses and radiation in these areas are minimal. Individuals in these areas have got better nutrition because of consumption of the abundant fresh food which is readily available.

Quite often cases of unwanted pregnancies occur especially on under aged girls. Due to poor pre-natal and post-natal health services the rates of infant mortality are relatively high. Individuals in these areas would prefer to get healthcare from professionals but who are limited in the region making the locals to turn to traditional health practices for solutions of their health problems. Their spirituality and death rituals are mainly based on their cultural and traditional practices.

Both populations require a lot of improvements especially the rural populations. To solve their health problems I would improve their awareness about health issues, increase the number of health facilities and personnel and also improve the available health facilities.

References

Gornick, M. Eggers, P. and Reilly, T. (1996). Effects of Race and Income on Mortality and Use of Services Among Medicare Beneficiaries. New England. Journal of Medicine, 335, 791–799.

Lavizzo, M. (1996). Cultural competence. Essential measurements of quality for managed care organizations. Annals of Internal Medicine, 124(10), 919-921.

Leininger, M. (1978). Transcultural nursing: Theories, research, and practice New York. John Wiley.

Pedersen, P. (1988). A handbook for Developing Multicultural Awareness. Alexandria, VA. American Association for Counseling and Development.